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The paper is devoted to cultural heritage dictionaries with special reference to the oldest branch of English lexicography — author lexicography, comprising three hundred reference books of different types: concordances, glossaries, lexicons, indices, thesauri, etc.

The article describes the main trends in developing author linguistic dictionaries for general and special purposes to single and complete works of G. Chaucer, W. Shakespeare, J. Milton, other famous English writers since the 16th c. The architecture of author encyclopedic dictionaries guides, encyclopedias, companions and onomasticons dictionaries of characters and place names, who is who in … series and their significant contribution to the English language, culture and society are discussed.

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Keywords: culture, heritage, author, lexicography, dictionary. Published by Vilnius University Press.

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Introduction The aim of the article is to show how English author or writer lexicography contributed to British national heritage. The objectives of this research are to define the main groups of reference books to the complete and single works of famous English writers. Linguistic and encyclopedic author dictionaries form the subject of the paper. The kaip internetiniai pažintys patarimai of the material covers all types of author dictionaries with special reference to Geffrey Chaucer, William Shakespeare, John Milton and other prominent English intellectuals, published since the 16th c.

Methods of dictionary reviewing and lexicographic analysis are applied to the description of dictionaries architecture. The relevance and novelty of the research are to discover the main types of linguistic and encyclopedic dictionaries through trends of formation, development and modern state of English lexicography.

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Dictionaries of national languages are called treasure troves of national heritage, which reflect the linguistic and cultural portrait of the nation, its history and traditions Considine,p. England is famous for its Oxford English Dictionary, based on historical principles, which registers and describes English words within its evolution up to the present days. It has long and rich traditions in compiling both norm-based dictionaries of a national language for general purposes and a wide variety of dictionaries for special purposes.

Many types of special reference books, such as slang, new words, dialectal lexis, collocations, archaisms, proper names, terms, idioms, phraseology, etc.

1. Linguistic Author Dictionaries

These dictionary projects paved the way for other types of linguistic dictionaries created either on their own basis or parallel to academic dictionaries of a national language. The majority of English special-purpose dictionaries have a very strong cultural component, for example, omonasticons, lingual-cultural and idioms dictionaries, dictionaries to single and complete works of famous English writers, politicians and philosophers, proverbs, quotations, concordances and glossaries to the English translation of the Bible, Beowulf, etc.

Alhastova, Karpova, Linguistic Author Dictionaries 1. There are three hundred linguistic and encyclopaedic monolingual and bilingual dictionaries of different types, sizes and formats to more than eighty English poets and writers, which appeared in the 16th c.

Among them, we discover different genres of reference books to Geoffrey Chaucer 40 dictionariesJohn Milton 10 dictionariesAlexander Pope, Charles Dickens 10 dictionariesAlfred Tennyson eight dictionaries and other prominent English men of letters Karpova, The majority of author dictionaries belong to a linguistic branch of English author lexicography, i.

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His early glossaries and concordances referred to the prescriptive type of author dictionaries, fixing difficult, hard, remarkable or obscure words, which lexicographers selected according to their preference, thus making reference books rather subjective. Moreover, their compilers tried to offer English contemporaries elegant norm of usage say it like Chaucer. The microstructure of these glossaries, for example, Th.

Since the 16th c. It is interesting to note that many quotations from G. Unlike early glossaries, G. Oizymi Oizymi,is considered to be the most comprehensive printed reference resource in Chaucer lexicography.

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It was followed by a remarkable electronic resource eChaucer in the 21 c. This reference resource highly contributed to the development of cyber author lexicography of the 21st c. Solnishkina, Gatiyatullina,pp.

online dating vardas puns

They also began from concordances to the complete works of the outstanding writer, who became famous in English and other societies, contributing to the transmission of English literature, theatre and art into other societies. Shakespeare is on online dating vardas puns world stage. His plays and sonnets are translated into many languages, and the appearance of bilingual English-German, English-Italian, English-Japanese and English-Russian Shakespeare dictionaries played an important role in the lexicographic interpretation of his masterpieces.

Shakespeare dictionaries today comprise the biggest group in the world, author lexicography with more than one hundred titles Karpova,pp.

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Various scholars studied W. According to B. Shakespeare left uswords, which have been used with the following frequency: love times, bloody —hate —damned —etc.

Bryson,p. David Crystal says that Shakespeare introduced into the English language 1, words and collocations: even-handed, far-off, moonbeam, schooldays, laughing yourself into stitches, setting your teeth on edge, not sleeping a wink, etc. Crystal and Crystal,p. Another remarkable reference book The Complete Concordance to Shakespeare Clark,which appeared in the 19th online dating vardas puns.

While C. Onions, the author of the dictionary A Shakespeare Glossary 3 : tried to show the individual peculiarities of W. Chaucer and W. Among them, we find concordances, created mainly in the 19th c. The last one, first published inwas recently transferred into the digital form due to the new trend in English national lexicography when many dictionaries appeared in Internet versions.

online dating vardas puns

For example, A Complete Concordance to the Poetical Works of John Milton Cleveland,also published innowadays has a digital version and, thus, easy access of modern readers. These concordances include all of J. Concordances have similar dictionary architecture: Introduction, A to Z corpus and several Appendices.

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The back matter contains proper names, toponyms and foreign words from J. It is aimed at the needs of J. It is necessary to note that despite a big chronological gap between centuries, there appeared many new lexicographic reference resources to J. Moreover, the 20th c. The majority of J. Among them, we should mention two more lexicons of great cultural value: A Milton Dictionary Le Comte, and A Geographical Dictionary of Milton Gilbert,which explained life and society in England of the 17th c.

Undoubtedly, J. Encyclopedic Author Dictionaries 2. One of the most typical encyclopedic dictionaries is under the title A Thomas Hardy Dictionary. Comprehensive volumes of G. There are thousands of old and new fans of Ch. The book has clear metalanguage, is packed with infographics, rich full-colour photography, images, idea webs, raya pažintys programa, quotes, explanations of plots, etc. In these volumes, J.

A-to-Z dictionary corpus includes battles, history, beasts, heroes, creatures of J. They combine different reference books, called either dictionaries of characters and place names or Who is who in… first appeared in the 18 c.

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This book was originally published in and presented an important historical work, maintaining the same format as the original edition. It provides modern users with quick access to the best historic reprints.

These features make this reference book attractive either for Shakespeare lovers or those new to his world. The range of online dating vardas puns of Who is who type is not so informative as dictionaries of characters and place names. Nowadays, a very interesting and innovative onomasticon Shakespeare: Actors and Audiences Banks, was added to this dramatic theatre reference range. It highlights the relationship between actors and audiences, exploring the interplay that makes each performance unique.

This innovative dictionary reflects the new trends in modern English lexicography, considering old and new research in the cultural heritage of Great Britain. Part I offers readers a detailed overview of the best modern audience research, gives us a critical framework for the interviews and testimony of leading actors, theatre-makers, audience members. Part II provides a fascinating insight into the English theatrical traditions, performances, and the specific relationship between actor and audience that lies in theatre-making.

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The last one is a comprehensive reference book examining the language employed by the outstanding dramatist to represent women in the full range of his poetry and plays.

Today they became the most frequently demanded information tools, because they provide rich graphic, music and video illustrations of cultural and linguistic facts, making them more and more attractive for international users students, translators, scholars. Conclusion The practical experience developed today close contacts with other branches of knowledge: culture, history, cinema, theatre, country studies and acquired interdisciplinary character.

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Dictionaries to G. Milton, Ch. Dickens, J. Austin, A. Tennyson, and many other writers offer modern users valuable linguistic facts and present unique encyclopedic information on cultural code of British society. Looking into the digital future of lexicography, it can be said that despite the growing interest in online reference resources and the Internet, English author dictionaries would also survive in a printed format due to their centuries-old experience.

As most heritage reference books are kept at the Rare Books Departments of international libraries, which are priceless archives of national cultural heritage, many readers will choose printed volumes. Sources Ayscough, S. London: Thomas Tegg.

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Baker, A. Banks, F. Shakespeare: Actors and Audiences. London and New York: Bloomsbury Arden.

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Online dating vardas puns, N. A Dictionary of his Informal Language. Athlone Dictionary Series. London: Thoemmes Continuum.

Bradshaw, J.